Assess the need for establishment of a SAR team in a community
A review of experience in response in an event that resulted in collapse of structures revealed that many of the victims of light entrapment are saved by people on the spot.This underlines the importance of rescue skills, first effective aid and first aid in trauma events, as essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Each community, which has a search-rescue team, will face to a unique complex situation, requiring special equipment and training for an effective and safe solving of the problem. Experience to date has shown that immediately after the most common major disasters, first response for entrapped victims under the rubble and injured, is given spontaneously by the people well-intentioned but unprepared and which not pays particular attention to security measures. In some cases, further loss of life is avoided.But often, this is not the case, claiming the spontaneous relief action is for the serious injured and very complicated problem.
Minimum requirements of the management of a SAR team
Worldwide a large number of states have created search-rescue teams (SAR). To be used in search-rescue actions under UN International was created an international advisory group of search-rescue operations (INSARAG) in 1991. This group of experts established the minimum levels of equipment, training and operational procedures that SAR teams must follow to provide an effective international SAR aid. And each component of the search-rescue team must perform their duties in a highly professional way (whether professional or volunteer).
Specific principles of SAR concept
- Clearly defined missions of SAR team;
- Flexible and varied organizational scheme;
- Appropriate equipment for specific missions of the team;
- Adoption of standard operating procedures to ensure a surge capacity;
- Adoption of standard procedures for selection, preparation and verification of SAR team members;
- Ensure adequate own logistical capacities SAR for team missions;
- Associating the team in the short term, some experts on specific issues in SAR missions;
- Ensuring operational compatibility with other SAR teams, as recommended by INSARAG.
Theoretical principles of Search
Theoretical principles guiding the search are listed below as:
- search and rescue is an emergency situation Search is an emergency situation because:
- in most cases, the subject of search and rescue requires emergency care;
- in most cases, the subject of search is in need of protection;
- time and weather conditions destroy traces;
- Reduce the difficulty of a rapid response search.
To meet the emergency nature of the search, the team manager must:
- to ensure a rapid response;
- to continue research and rescue at night;
- to mobilize and maintain as much in search field;
- To create a positive motivation to the team with which they work.
Search is a task of solving the unknown
Finding a lost person can be compared to a detective story. Traces of missing persons can be found only if the search manager coordinates the actions by appropriate investigations, interviews and other related activities.This principle refers to:
- Traces are more numerous than the subjects of search. Each subject leaves many traces in the ground (in number and in shape);
- Substantially reduce the difficulty of finding traces of search.
The management of search actions means the effective coordination of efforts of those charged with finding the lost persons.Search management actions are important because if the search effort is not well planned, organized, coordinated and executed, this is due to mistakes at the management level:
Misunderstanding of the specifics of the search work;
In this context, the most common mistakes made by managers of the search actions are:
- Absence of pre-planning or failure to follow recommended procedures in this;
- Misuse of existing resources (in different order than normal);
- Inability to provide effective leadership of all those involved in the search;
- Adoption of an inappropriate work program, which lowers the time manager’s performance.
Evaluation of vulnerabilities on the conduct of search actions
To do the initial planning of a search action is necessary to conduct an assessment of the kind of problems that will need to be solved for effective use of search. Such an assessment will be useful for:
- Initial planning and training activities;
- Allocating resources and preparing standard operating procedures;
- Fitting choice and composition of the search team;
- Taking measures to limit risks requiring action search.
Evaluation is a systematic investigation of the potential situation that may lead to search activities by analyzing the following elements (for a given area):
- Area of geographical features;
- Information on the demographic situation;
- Available resources of the area to conduct search activities;Based on information received and the initial plan of action, manager of search actions may draw the Plan of Action (POA), which represents the initial plan of action tailored to the specific case to be solved. Drawing sequences of POA are:
- Check (possibly redistribute) staffing of the management team and to the search.
- Switch position on the map and update it regularly.
- Establish a psychological profile of the person sought.
Search setting project goals.
Determining the search area and its segmentation. Determine the probability of finding missing persons in an area segment. Resources allocated team(s) of search. Transmit orders to search team’s actions (required in writing).
Coordinate the search.
It is important to stress that the action plan divides the maximum period of 12 hours (after that, especially field staff, should be changed).
How to conduct the investigations and interviews